Do you know how to conduct research?

Are you a researcher or a university student who wishes to conduct a research project or write thesis/ dissertation? If yes, you should follow the following main aspects of research process.

research method

Pakistan’s Iqbal Masih: He changed the world before being murdered at the age of 13

It was a moment that stunned viewers. In late 1994, a twelve-year old boy whose stunted body size and weigh made him look half his age appeared on ABC World News to describe his years as a virtual slave in Pakistan. At the age of four, Iqbal Masih had been offered to a carpet manufacturer as collateral for a loan of about $16. For the next six years, twelve to fourteen hours a day, six days a week, the boy worked at a loom in a carpet factory. As “bonded laborers” working to pay off family debts, Iqbal and the other children in the factor were forbidden to leave and punished severely if they tried.

“They threatened us not to even think of leaving,” he said in the ABC interview. “They tell us, ‘We’ll burn your fingers in oil if you even try to leave. We’ll put you in oil.”

Iqbal ran away from the factory twice. The first time he headed straight for a police station, thinking he would be offered protection, and was promptly returned to his owner. As punishment, he was hung upside down by his heels and then chained for a time to his loom. He was luckier n his second try. After wandering countryside for a few days, Iqbal eventually met a representative of the Bond Labor Liberation Front (BLLF), an activist organization seeking to end the enslavement endured by over twenty million adults and nearly eight million children in Pakistan.

Risking life and limbs, Iqbal led the BLLF to the factor where he had worked. When photos of malnourished children chained to looms were released, public outcry forced the police to close the place down.

Iqbal became an international known spokesperson for the BLLF, participating in dozens of raids on sweatshops and liberating over three thousand Pakistani child laborers.

In the last year of is life, he toured Europe and the United States, drawing world attention to forced child labor and urging an international boycott on Pakistan carpets.

Although, illiterate, when he escaped from the factor, Iqbal was a bright child, mastering five years of schooling in less than three. His dream was to become a lawyer to continue his struggle against bonded labor. But Iqbal courageous opposition to what has been called Pakistan’s carpet mafia made him a target. On Sunday 16, April 1995, Iqbal was killed by a shotgun blast while ridding a bicycle.

His death story was made controversial as police recorded an FIR that said that Masih was shot by a man whom the boy and two relatives had seen having sex with a donkey. Tahir Ikram, a Pakistani reported, filed the story to the Reuters but was ignored by global media. At the time of his death, Iqbal was an internationally known child activist. Why the person who was having sex with a donkey killed only Iqbal– not the two other relatives– led the media not to believe the donkey story.

Iqbal has been featured in ABC News person of the week. His worked has inspired the creation of Free the Children, a Canadian organization whose goals are to free children from poverty and exploitation and free young people from the notion that they are powerless to change the world.

This Child has freed 3000 kids and brought down Pakistan’s Carpet Industry by $37 million in just under one year.

Iqbal was the recipient of the prestigious Reebok Human Rights Youth In Action Award in 1994. His work has inspired books and a movie called ‘Iqbal’.

The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Kailash Satyarthi on grounds of prevention of child labor and female education. Satyarthi mentioned Masih in his Nobel Peace Prize award speech, dedicating it to him and other “martyrs”.

Content and Photo courtesy: The Dardistan Times

15 Email Etiquette Rules Every Professional Should Follow


Despite being glued to their reply buttons, plenty of managers still don’t know how to use email appropriately.

The average US employee spends about a quarter of the work week combing through the hundreds of emails we all send and receive every day.

But despite the fact that we’re glued to our reply buttons, career coach Barbara Pachter says plenty of professionals still don’t know how to use email appropriately.

In fact, because of the sheer volume of messages we’re reading and writing each day, we may be more prone to making embarrassing errors–and those mistakes can have serious professional consequences.

Pachter outlines the basics of modern email etiquette in her book “The Essentials Of Business Etiquette.” We pulled out the most essential rules you need to know.

1. Include a clear, direct subject line.

Examples of a good subject line include “Meeting date changed,” “Quick question about your presentation,” or “Suggestions for the proposal.”

“People often decide whether to open an email based on the subject line,” Pachter says. “Choose one that lets readers know you are addressing their concerns or business issues.”

2. Use a professional email address.

If you work for a company, you should use your company email address. But if you use a personal email account–whether you are self-employed or just like using it occasionally for work-related correspondences —you should be careful when choosing that address, Pachter says.

You should always have an email address that conveys your name so that the recipient knows exactly who is sending the email. Never use email addresses (perhaps remnants of your grade-school days) that are not appropriate for use in the workplace, such as “babygirl@…” or “beerlover@…” -; no matter how much you love a cold brew.

3. Think twice before hitting ‘reply all.’

No one wants to read emails from 20 people that have nothing to do with them. Ignoring the emails can be difficult, with many people getting notifications of new messages on their smartphones or distracting pop-up messages on their computer screens. Refrain from hitting “reply all” unless you really think everyone on the list needs to receive the email, Pachter says.

4. Include a signature block.

Provide your reader with some information about you, Pachter suggests. “Generally, this would state your full name, title, the company name, and your contact information, including a phone number. You also can add a little publicity for yourself, but don’t go overboard with any sayings or artwork.”

Use the same font, type size, and color as the rest of the email, she says.

5. Use professional salutations.

Don’t use laid-back, colloquial expressions like, “Hey you guys,” “Yo,” or “Hi folks.”

“The relaxed nature of our writings should not affect the salutation in an email,” she says. “Hey is a very informal salutation and generally it should not be used in the workplace. And Yo is not okay either. Use Hi or Helloinstead.”

She also advises against shortening anyone’s name. Say “Hi Michael,” unless you’re certain he prefers to be called “Mike.”

6. Use exclamation points sparingly.

If you choose to use an exclamation point, use only one to convey excitement, Pachter says.

“People sometimes get carried away and put a number of exclamation points at the end of their sentences. The result can appear too emotional or immature,” she writes. “Exclamation points should be used sparingly in writing.”

7. Be cautious with humor.

Humor can easily get lost in translation without the right tone or facial expressions. In a professional exchange, it’s better to leave humor out of emails unless you know the recipient well. Also, something that you think is funny might not be funny to someone else.

Pachter says: “Something perceived as funny when spoken may come across very differently when written. When in doubt, leave it out.”

8. Know that people from different cultures speak and write differently.

Miscommunication can easily occur because of cultural differences, especially in the writing form when we can’t see one another’s body language. Tailor your message to the receiver’s cultural background or how well you know them.

A good rule to keep in mind, Pachter says, is that high-context cultures (Japanese, Arab, or Chinese) want to get to know you before doing business with you. Therefore, it may be common for business associates from these countries to be more personal in their writings. On the other hand, people from low-context cultures (German, American, or Scandinavian) prefer to get to the point very quickly.

9. Reply to your emails–even if the email wasn’t intended for you.

It’s difficult to reply to every email message ever sent to you, but you should try to, Pachter says. This includes when the email was accidentally sent to you, especially if the sender is expecting a reply. A reply isn’t necessary but serves as good email etiquette, especially if this person works in the same company or industry as you.

Here’s an example reply: “I know you’re very busy, but I don’t think you meant to send this email to me. And I wanted to let you know so you can send it to the correct person.”

10. Proofread every message.

Your mistakes won’t go unnoticed by the recipients of your email. “And, depending upon the recipient, you may be judged for making them,”Pachter says.

Don’t rely on spell-checkers. Read and re-read your email a few times, preferably aloud, before sending it off.

“One supervisor intended to write ‘Sorry for the inconvenience,'” Pachter says. “But he relied on his spell-check and ended up writing ‘Sorry for the incontinence.'”

11. Add the email address last.

“You don’t want to send an email accidentally before you have finished writing and proofing the message,” Pachter says. “Even when you are replying to a message, it’s a good precaution to delete the recipient’s address and insert it only when you are sure the message is ready to be sent.”

12. Double-check that you’ve selected the correct recipient.

Pachter says to pay careful attention when typing a name from your address book on the email’s “To” line. “It’s easy to select the wrong name, which can be embarrassing to you and to the person who receives the email by mistake.”

13. Keep your fonts classic.

Purple Comic Sans has a time and a place (maybe?), but for business correspondence, keep your fonts, colors, and sizes classic.

The cardinal rule: Your emails should be easy for other people to read.

“Generally, it is best to use 10- or 12- point type and an easy-to-read font such as Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman,” Pachter advises. As for color, black is the safest choice.

14. Keep tabs on your tone.

Just as jokes get lost in translation, tone is easy to misconstrue without the context you’d get from vocal cues and facial expressions. Accordingly, it’s easy to come off as more abrupt that you might have intended –you meant “straightforward,” they read “angry and curt.”

To avoid misunderstandings, Pachter recommends you read your message out loud before hitting send. “If it sounds harsh to you, it will sound harsh to the reader,” she says.

For best results, avoid using unequivocally negative words (“failure,” “wrong,” or “neglected”), and always say “please” and “thank you.”

15. Nothing is confidential–so write accordingly.

Always remember what former CIA chief General David Petraeus apparently forgot, warns Pachter: Every electronic message leaves a trail.

“A basic guideline is to assume that others will see what you write,” she says, “so don’t write anything you wouldn’t want everyone to see.” A more liberal interpretation: Don’t write anything that would be ruinous to you or hurtful to others. After all, email is dangerously easy to forward, and it’s better to be safe than sorry.


Vivian Giang and Rachel Sugar contributed to earlier versions of this article.

This story first appeared on Business Insider by By Jacquelyn Smith Business Insider

Filipino farmer’s son gets full scholarship at Harvard University

The following story is a clear proof that with hard work you can overcome any obstacle in life. This is a story about the son of a Filipino farmer. The boy did not only get accepted at Harvard University but he also got full scholarship. Lots of people lose faith just because they are not given the opportunity they need, but with hard work you can achieve anything. Feeling helpless because you think you have bad faith was not something this boy did.

Being born in poverty is a physical and mental challenge. Even though his family was poor, this boy continued getting his education even though he had to cross a river every day on his way to school. His father supported him in his goal of getting proper education and he worked really hard.

The boy’s name is Romnick L.Blanco. He was one of the best students in his school. He was supported by a charity called Green Earth Heritage that helps other students like him. This charity is also providing computer classes and literacy to students. Due to his good marks and intelligence, Romnick was given scholarship by the International School Manila where he got the highest marks on every subject.

He soon caught the attention of lots of universities including the most prestigious such as Wesley, New York and Dartmouth University. However, he accepted the scholarship from Harvard University.

Romnick recently started his studies at Harvard and he is still doing very well. After he graduated in 2017, he took a year off to travel around the world and he visited many countries. Even though he currently studies at Harvard, he still remembers his roots. He has planted more than 1,500 plants in his father’s field. His parents could not be more proud or happier that their child is succeeding in his life.

Courtesy : Useful Gen

I Quit!

By Carole Spiers Group

We all have bad days at work sometimes, but then that may turn into a bad week, a bad month or even a bad year.

So, as we start the New Year, you may think that it’s maybe time for a job change.  You could have got yourself into a rut but then you wonder if this is just a temporary or permanent situation?  Is it really time to move on?  Or are you jumping from the firepan into the fire? Human beings tend to fear uncertainty and change and so sometimes we find ourselves holding back. Sound familiar?

Let’s look at some of the signs that show it’s maybe time to change.

  • Your job offers you no opportunity for growth
  • The organisation doesn’t provide any skills development training
  • You watch the clock all day and can’t wait to go home at 5pm
  • You have lost your sense of purpose
  • You are not quite sure which direction either you or the organisation is going
  • You don’t feel you are part of the big picture


Your job offers you no opportunity for growth
When you start your career path, it is good to aim for a promotion every 2-3 years and as you progress to mid-career level, promotions tend to slow down to about every 3-5 years.   If you feel like you have hit the top of the career ladder and there’s nowhere else to go, you may find it hard to get inspired every day and once that happens, it is a very slippery slope to being unproductive.

You don’t feel a sense of achievement
If you don’t feel any attachment or pride in your work, it can be difficult to stay motivated. When you feel like you are contributing to your company and making a difference, chances are you will enjoy your work and are eager to come in every day.  But if you’re at the point when you’re thinking “I really don’t know what I’m actually doing here”… or “I just feel like a number”…then it may be time to consider moving on.

You aren’t getting new opportunities to learn
A huge part of career satisfaction is in tackling new challenges and learning new skills.  Only you can be in control of your own career and even though there are many coaches who can give guidance, at the end of the day, you have to make your own decisions. If you have asked to take on new responsibility so that you can grow your role but have been refused, then the chances are that your company is not going to be the one to be a part of your future growth.

You don’t align with the company core values
A belief in the ethos and mission of the company is an essential factor in personal  motivation.  However, if you fail to subscribe to the organisational aims, objectives and purpose then you will be excluded from team dynamic energy and find yourself on the edge instead of in the centre.  And that’s not the ideal place to be.

Your salary remains the same
If you been taking on new responsibilities and putting in extra hours but haven’t seen a meaningful increase in your pay for a few years, it might be time to look for another job.  Do some research into the current market value for your skills, experience and favoured location to make sure your remuneration is commensurate with your talents and qualifications.

You daydream at work
Spending hours daydreaming at work and wondering ‘’if only…’ ‘what if…’ or ‘I wish…’ Iis just a non-productive, waste of time and energy.  Only you will know if you are doing non-work related activity like surfing the internet or being on social platforms during working hours as a means of making the time go past quicker because you are under utilised. And if so, you have a duty to both yourself and the organisation to rectify that state of affairs.

You can’t wait to leave work
We all are more productive if we are stimulated and if you spend your day watching the clock, then this is a sure sign that you are not engaged and feel part of the organisation.  The chances are that this boredom will lead to stress which is exactly what you don’t want.


Courtesy: Carole Spiers Group


17 Astonishing Places You Wouldn’t Believe Are In Pakistan

Pakistan, home to a population of almost 200 million people, rich in culture and exotic places for tourism has faded under the dark clouds of terrorism and other mind-numbing concerns. However, let’s for once not highlight our slip-ups and focus on the brighter side of things. These exotic destinations will make you want to pack your bags and leave immediately.

1. A location amidst the Seven Kingdoms from Game of Thrones?


This is Kalash Valley, Chitral. Where the Nuristani people of Kalash speak ‘kalashamondr’. Breathtaking!

2. A hospitable café by the river in Switzerland?


Not at all! This is Kalam Valley, Swat. A tourist hot-spot, labeled as ‘mini-Europe’ by many.


3. Volcanoes fascinate everyone. Is this on Dante’s peak?


Not exactly, these Mud volcanoes can be found in different regions of Balochistan. This particular one rests in Hingol, Balochistan.

4. The magical waters from the Chronicles of Narnia?


Can’t be. This is the exotic Ghizer River in Gilgit-Baltistan.
Wrapped around lush, green and pleasant landscapes, Ghizer is a diamond in the dirt.

5. Definitely something taken out of a Hollywood movie?


Not to be. These are the Rakaposhi-Haramosh Mountains, Karakoram. Amongst the largest in the world, these mountains are a trekker’s fantasy.

6. Did you just open your window in a Khatmandu resort?


A window does open, but from the Hunza Valley, Gilgit-Balistan. The Burushaski speaking locals live a happy, peaceful life amidst cold weathers.

7. A temple for the faithful situated near the holy river Ganges?


The Katas Raj Temple in Chakwal, Punjab. Remains of the Buddhist Stupa, the Katas site houses the Satgraha, a group of seven ancient temples.

8. Foreigners sidelining along the blue lines of Goa?


The Arabian Sea says no! Cape Monze or locally known as Ras Muari, the Cape Mount Beach floats near the Gadani Beach, Karachi.

9. Stone-walls in the Grand Canyon or Mount Rushmore?


The muscled formation of Hingol National Park in Hingol, Balochistan. Home to exotic wildlife, the Hingol National Park can serve as a stupendous tourist spot.

10. An artist’s imagination as he draws a landscape in Iceland?


A view of the frozen sunset captured in Shandur Lake, Gilgit-Baltistan. Where the locals like to play Polo and live ordinary lives, Shandur serves as a tourist’s delight.

11. Wooden cottages on a lush top in Ireland?


This astounding, lush green tourist spot is Arang Kel, Azad Kashmir. Located on an altitude of 8,379 feet, this striking sight is a 2km trek from Kel.

12. The dukes and duchesses of Scotland must’ve walked on these fields?


Overcast weather in Dharam Sar Lake, Kaghan Valley. Resting in the Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, this attraction was largely rebuilt after 2005’s earthquake.

13. A heaven to the foreigners. Must be Brazil or Chile?


The double-bed waterfall rests in Sajikot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Stagnant in the Hazara region, Sajikot would put any South American country to shame.

14. An insight on the dazzling caves of South Africa?


This tourism deprived sight is known as Moola Chotok in Khuzdar, Balochistan. Amidst tense hold of nationalists in the Jhalawan belt, Chotok seems like a lost cause.

15. Where are the tourists? This must lead to the Niagara Falls?


Fortunately, no! This peach of a view is from the Neelam Valley, Kashmir. One of the better tourist ranges in Pakistan, this valley is a 200km long bow-shaped, deeply forested region.

16. Book-cover material. Has to lie in the outskirts of Belgium?


Wrong again! This shot from heaven was captured at the Attabad Lake, Hunza Valley. Created by a landslide in 2010, the locals like prefer referring to it as the Gojal Lake.

17. The astounding waterfalls from Leura Cascades, Australia?


No chance. This is an awe-inspiring view of Pir Ghaib, Balochistan. Locals here believe in the myth of the Invisible Saint (Pir Ghaib), who was saved by the Almighty.


Courtesy: Shuga Dot Com/Dardistan Times

10 top data science and analytics education programs of 2018

By Alison DeNisco Rayome

These universities and institutes offer the best programs for professionals interested in a career in big data and analytics.datata

There’s never been a better time to begin a career in data science: By 2020 the number of annual job openings for all data-savvy professionals in the US will increase to 2.7 million, IBM predicted. And those with data science skills can command an average salary of $139,840 in the US, according to Glassdoor. The massive growth in data has changed the way enterprises operate, and data science has become crucial for making smart business decisions.

But how do you gain this coveted skillset? Analytics Insight Magazine has named the 10 best analytics and data science institutes of 2018, naming the top programs with experienced global faculties that offer real-world experience to their students, according to a press release.

“The featured institutions offer a comprehensive curriculum in Big Data and Data Science, delivered by top-class faculties along with extraordinary industry exposure,” Ashish Sukhadeve, founder and editor-in-chief of Analytics Insight, said in the release. “We congratulate all the ten institutes for providing world-class analytical education and building impactful data professionals.”

Here are 10 analytics and data science institutes that are at the forefront of education in the field.

  1. Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy

Carnegie Mellon offers a Master’s program in Business Intelligence and Data Analytics (BIDA), and deploys the latest in analytical education, according to the release.

  1. Cornell University

Cornell offers a unique flagship program in Master of Professional Studies in Applied Statistics (M.P.S.). It also offers undergraduate degrees in statistics and data science, as well as M.S and Ph.D. degrees in these fields.

  1. Great Lakes Institute of Management

Great Lakes Institute of Management is a leading business school in India, which offers a one-year Post Graduate Program in Management (PGPM), a regular two-year Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM), along with weekend and executive programs in analytics, for professionals who want to gain these skills while working.

  1. International School of Engineering

The International School of Engineering (INSOFE) in India is an applied engineering school with a focus on data science and big data analytics education, according to the release. The school offers courses in big data analytics, teaching the latest machine learning and deep learning techniques to solve real-world problems.

  1. New York University Stern School of Business

The NYU Stern School offers a Masters of Science in Business Analytics degree that aims to help executives understand the role of data in decision-making. The program focuses on domain-specific areas such as analytics strategy, marketing, and optimization, according to the release.

  1. Penn State University

Penn State University offers Master in Data Analytics, preparing students to work in positions that require the design and maintenance of big data and data analytics systems with exposure to real-world datasets.

  1. Praxis Business School

India’s Praxis Business School offers a one-year post-graduate program in data science with machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities aimed at equipping students with the tools, techniques, and skills to enter the analytics field, the release said.

  1. Saint Mary’s College, Notre Dame

Notre Dame offers a Master of Science in Data Science program provides students with a deep dive into the mathematical and computational skills needed to take on complex data challenges.

  1. University of Chicago Graham School

The University of Chicago offers a Master of Science in Analytics (MScA) program to help students analyze complex datasets and and solve real-world problems, the release noted.

  1. University of San Francisco

The University of San Francisco offers a Master of Science in Data Science (MSDS). This full-time, one-year program involves a rigorous curriculum focused on mathematical and computational techniques in emerging fields


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